近日俄罗斯方面透露对华出售D-30KP-2涡扇的情况,这些发动机用于配备国产运-20大型运输机、轰-6K系列战略轰炸机。

The Russian side recently revealed the sale of the D-30KP-2 turbofan to China, which is equipped with domestic transport-20 large transport aircraft and a series of strategic bombers.

  从俄方提供信息来看,2009-2020年俄罗斯一共向中国出售了463部发动机,这些发动机引进表明国产运-20大型运输机、轰-6K系列战略轰炸机已经进入批量生产阶段。

According to information provided by the Russian side, a total of 463 engines were sold to China from 2009 to 2020, and the introduction of these engines indicates that the domestic transport-20 large transport aircraft, boom-6K series strategic bombers have entered the mass production stage.

  根据相关资料,D-30KP-2是俄罗斯D-30KP涡扇发动机改进型。主要提高发动机在高温高原条件下使用性能,起飞推力增加到吨,翻修时间提高到2000小时,在俄罗斯D-30KP-2主要配备伊尔-76TD/MD等型号运输机,中国空军就曾经引进过这两个型号的伊尔-76TD/MD运输机。考虑到后勤保障等方面原因,国产运-20、轰-6K在研制的时候,考虑到国产发动机成熟还需要时日,也选择了D-30KP-2作为发动机。

According to the relevant information, D-30KP-2 is an improved type of Russian D-30KP turbofan engine. Mainly improve the performance of the engine under high-temperature plateau conditions, take-off thrust increased to tons, renovation time increased to 2000 hours, in Russia D-30KP-2 mainly equipped with Il-76TD\/MD and other models of transport aircraft, the Chinese Air Force has introduced these two models of Il-76TD\/MD transport aircraft. Considering logistics support and other reasons, domestic transport-20, boom-6K in the development, considering that the maturity of the domestic engine still needs time, also selected D-30KP-2 as the engine.

  中国在2009年引进第1批D-30KP-2涡扇发动机,数量是55部,并且在2011年之前全部交付,一般认为这些发动机可能全部用于轰-6K轰炸机,每架轰-6K需要2部发动机,再加上备用发动机,这些发动机大约可以制造24架轰-6K轰炸机。2011年中国又向俄罗斯购买了184部D-30KP-2涡扇发动机,这些发动机在2015年前交付完毕,考虑到运-20在2013年才首飞,所以这些发动机应该也用于轰-6K轰炸机生产,不过运-20制造了5架原型机,所以,每架运-20配备4部发动机,加上备用共需要25部以上发动机,扣除这些发动机之后,剩余发动机用于生产轰-6K,大约可以生产80架左右。

China introduced the first batch of D30KP2 turbofan engines in 2009, with 55 engines delivered before 2011. It is generally believed that these engines may all be used to bomb 6K bombers, and each of which requires 2 engines, together with spare engines, can produce about 24 6K bombers. In 2011, China purchased 184 D30KP2 turbofan engines from Russia. These engines were delivered before 2015. Considering that the operation of 20 was only the first flight in 2013, these engines should also be used for the production of 6K bombers. However, the operation of 20 manufactured 5 prototypes. Therefore, each transport 20 is equipped with 4 engines, and more than 25 engines are required for standby. After deducting these engines, the remaining engines are used to produce 6K, about 80 engines can be produced.

  2016年中国继续增购D-30KP-2涡扇发动机,第3次采购170部发动机,交付计划是:2017年交付44部,2018年交付40部,2019年交付48部,2020年交付38台。根据相关报道,运-20在2016年交付部队,因此这些发动机可能用于生产运-20,170部最多可以生产40架运-20运输机。紧接着中国又增购了第四批D-30KP-2发动机,数量为54部发动机,同样到2020年交付完毕,交付计划是2017年10部;2018年12部;2019年12部;2020年20部。这些发动机大约可以用来制造20架轰-6K系列轰炸机。

China continued to buy additional D-30KP-2 turbofan engines in 2016, the third purchase of 170 engines, the delivery plan is:2017 delivery of 44,2018 delivery of 40,2019 delivery of 48,2020 delivery of 38. According to the relevant reports, the shipping-20 delivered troops in 2016, so these engines may be used to produce shipping-20,170 can produce up to 40 shipping-20 transporters. Immediately after the purchase of a fourth batch of D-30KP-2 engines in China, the number of 54 engines, also by 2020 delivery completed, the delivery plan is 2017 10;2018 12;2019 12;2020 20. These engines can be used to make about 20 boom-6K series bombers.

  综上所述,2009-2020年期间中国一共向俄罗斯订购了463部D-30KP-2涡扇发动机,大约可以制造40架运-20和120架轰-6K系列轰炸机。当然也有可能2016年购买的同批发动机既用于运-20也用于轰-6K,所以两种飞机生产数字也有可能调整。

To sum up, between 2009 and 2020, China ordered a total of 463 D-30KP-2 turbofan engines from Russia, which could produce about 40 transport-20 and 120 boom-6K bombers. Of course, it is also possible that the same batch of engines purchased in 2016 will be used for both the shipping-20 and the boom-6K, so it is possible to adjust the numbers for both aircraft production.

  由于运-20是中国空军主力运输机,再加上空中加油、预警机、电子战等特种飞机,因此装备规模可能会达到“数百架”数,需要的发动机数量可能会达到数千部之多,因此外界最关注可能就是国产发动机何时能够替代D-30KP-2涡扇发动机,运-20和轰-6K何时能装备上“中国芯”。从俄方说法来看,现有合同在2020年结束,而运-20和轰-6K的生产显然不会在2020年就结束,因此双方没有签署新合同的话,似乎可以推测国产发动机有可能在2021年替代D-30KP-2涡扇发动机。

Because Yun-20 is the main transport aircraft of the Chinese air force, plus special aircraft such as air refueling, early warning aircraft, electronic warfare, the size of the equipment may reach “hundreds ” and the number of engines needed may reach as many as thousands, the most concern may be when the domestic engine can replace the D-30KP-2 turbofan engine, and when the transport-20 and boom-6K can be equipped with“ China core ”. From the Russian side, the existing contract ends in 2020, and the production of Yun-20 and Boom-6K will obviously not end in 2020, so if the two sides do not sign a new contract, it seems possible to speculate that the domestic engine may replace the D-30K P-2 turbofan engine in 2021.

  海外资料认为中国相关单位为运-20和轰-6K研制了涡扇18发动机用于替代D-30KP-2。涡扇18就是在D-30KP-2基础上发展而来,主要指标与后者相当或者相近,可以装备在后者的发动机舱之中,实现原位替代。2017年起涡扇18就在国内伊尔-76空中试车平台上面进行试飞,2021年有望通过鉴定,批量生产。不过D-30KP-2和涡扇18都是中涵道涡扇发动机,推力、油耗与现代大涵道涡扇发动机相比还有较大差距。相关单位也研制了涡扇20大涵道比涡扇发动机,它的性能与CFM56发动机相当或者相近,装备运-20之后可以用力提高运-20性能,外界认为涡扇20有可能在2020年之后设计定型,替代涡扇18、D-30KP-2涡扇发动机。

Overseas sources believe that Chinese units have developed turbofan 18 engines for transport-20 and boom-6K to replace D-30KP-2. Turbofan 18 is developed on the basis of D-30KP-2, the main index is comparable to or similar to the latter, can be equipped in the engine room of the latter to achieve in situ substitution. Since 2017, turbofan 18 has test-fired on the domestic Il-76 air test platform, and is expected to pass the appraisal in 2021, mass production. However, both D-30KP-2 and turbofan 18 are medium culvert turbofan engines, and there is still a big gap between thrust and fuel consumption compared with modern large culvert turbofan engines. The units concerned have also developed a turbofan 20 culvert than turbofan engine, which is comparable to or similar to the CFM 56 engine, and can be used to improve the transport-20 performance after the equipment transportation-20.


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