据新华社报道,美国国防部当地时间2日晚确认,伊朗伊斯兰革命卫队下属“圣城旅”指挥官卡西姆·苏莱马尼在美军实施的袭击中身亡。

On Tuesday night, the U.S. Department of Defense confirmed that Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps \"Al-Quds Brigade\" commander Kasim Sulaimani was killed in an attack carried out by U.S. forces, Xinhua reported.

  声明说,此次袭击旨在震慑伊朗,打消其未来的袭击计划。根据声明中的说法,苏莱马尼此前曾计划袭击在伊拉克和该地区内的美国外交官和军方人士,苏莱马尼和“圣城旅”造成数百名美国和国际联盟军人死亡,数千人受伤。

The statement said the attack was aimed at deterring Iran and eliminating its plans for a future attack. According to the statement, Sulaimani had planned to attack U.S. diplomats and military personnel in Iraq and the region, killing hundreds of U.S. and international coalition soldiers and injuring thousands of others.

  美国官员认为,革命卫队精锐部队圣城旅指挥官苏莱曼尼将军要为伊拉克战争期间数百名美国士兵的死亡以及伊朗在整个中东地区的敌对活动负责。

U.S. officials believe General Suleimani, commander of the Al-Quds Brigades of the elite Revolutionary Guards, is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of U.S. soldiers during the Iraq war and Iranian hostilities throughout the Middle East.

  伊朗圣城旅(Al-qudsforce)是伊朗革命卫队的一个特殊分支,成立于1979,是伊斯兰革命的产物。顾名思义,它肩负着守卫伊朗意识形态的重任,主要抵御任何会对伊朗伊斯兰共和国产生威胁的内外因素。

Al-qudsforce, a special branch of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, was founded in 1979 as the product of the Islamic revolution. As its name implies, it bears the responsibility of guarding Iran's ideology, primarily against any internal or external factors that threaten the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  实际上,该组织对伊朗和整个中东地区的影响不仅局限于其简单且被动的防卫功能。同时,它也向外扩展,协助地区内强硬和激进的武装作战。圣城旅的主要工作是进行情报分析和参加非常规战争(编者注:非常规战争与常规战争的一个主要差别在于作战目标的设定。相比于用武器取得最终胜利的常规战,非常规作战的目标是通过各种手段迫使对方意识到,战争的胜利是无法得到和平与安全的,作出让步才是最终的解决方法)。

Indeed, its impact on Iran and the Middle East as a whole is not limited to its simple and passive defence function. At the same time, it is also expanding to assist tough and aggressive armed fighting in the region. The main task of the Holy City Brigade is to conduct intelligence analysis and participate in unconventional warfare (Editor's Note: One of the main differences between unconventional and conventional warfare is to set objectives. The objective of unconventional warfare is to force the other side through various means to realize that the victory of the war is without peace and security and that concessions are the ultimate solution.

  圣城旅受卡西姆·苏莱曼尼将军的指挥。从革命卫队整体来看,无论是训练水准,还是装备质量,圣战旅都处于顶尖水平。在伊朗革命卫队中,大概有8000人参与了非常规战争的作战计划。与常规部队不同,圣城旅主要在海外战场作战,并已全方位支援过多个非国家行为体,其中包括黎巴嫩真主党、巴勒斯坦的哈马斯、加沙地带的巴勒斯坦伊斯兰圣战组织、伊拉克和阿富汗的民兵组织。有报道称,圣城旅与一些逊尼派的极端组织也有联系,如“基地”组织,但这一信息并未受到官方的确认。可以说,伊朗在中东通过支持武装势力来追求地区利益的策略中,圣城旅是非常核心和锐利的执行者。

The Al-Quds Brigade is under the command of General Kasim Suleimani. From the Revolutionary Guard as a whole, whether it is the training level or equipment quality, the jihadist brigade is at the top level. Of Iran's Revolutionary Guard, about 8,000 are part of the war plan for unconventional warfare. Unlike conventional forces, al-Quds operates mainly on overseas battlefields and has fully supported a number of non-state actors, including Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in Palestine, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip, and militias in Iraq and Afghanistan. There are reports that the al-Quds Brigade is also linked to some Sunni extremist groups, such as al-Qaeda, but this information has not been officially confirmed. It can be said that in Iran's strategy of pursuing regional interests by supporting armed forces in the Middle East, the Al-Quds Brigade is a very central and sharp executor.

  圣城旅因其任务的特殊性,在伊朗革命卫队中有着无可争议的特殊地位。这一特殊性体现在许多方面,同时也使其带有了一些神秘色彩。有报道称,圣城旅的财政来源是由伊朗最高领袖哈梅内伊直接负责,且无法在伊朗常规的军事报告中找到相关数据。

The Al-Quds Brigade has an indisputable special position in the Iranian Revolutionary Guard because of its special mission. This particularity embodies many aspects, and it also carries some mystery. It has been reported that the al-Quds Brigade was financed directly by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and that data could not be found in Iran's regular military reports.

  目前,圣城旅在伊朗本土和海外都拥有基地,且士兵根据作战国或地区分成不同支部。这些支部划分细致,且覆盖了四个大洲的部分国家:伊拉克、黎巴嫩、巴勒斯坦、约旦、阿富汗、巴基斯坦、印度、土耳其、阿拉伯半岛、中亚的前苏联国家、西方国家(包括欧洲和北美)以及南非(埃及、突尼斯、阿尔及利亚、苏丹和摩洛哥)。

At present, the Holy City Brigade has bases in both Iran and abroad, and soldiers are divided into different branches according to the combat country or region. These branches are carefully divided and cover parts of the four continents:Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, the former Soviet States of Central Asia, the West(including Europe and North America)and South Africa(Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan and Morocco).

  而由圣城旅控制的本土大量的训练基地,主要被用于训练参与非常规战争的精干士兵。同时,圣城旅在苏丹和黎巴嫩也设有类似的训练基地。伊朗的主训练基地被设置在德黑兰北部的ImamAliUniversity中。士兵在接受军事训练的同时,也会被加强意识形态的教育。

A large number of local training bases, controlled by the Al-Quds Brigade, are used to train lean soldiers involved in unconventional warfare. Al-Quds also has similar training bases in the Sudan and Lebanon. Iran's main training base is in Imam Ali University in northern Tehran. While receiving military training, soldiers will also be strengthened ideological education.

  圣城旅也同许多伊朗大使馆有着紧密的合作,不少大使馆中设有圣城旅的办公室,但圣城旅是否独立于大使馆事务仍不清楚。这也表明:伊朗情报部门,伊朗革命卫队和伊朗外交部门都有参与到圣城旅的事务当中。

Al-Quds Brigades also have close cooperation with many Iranian embassies, many of which have offices for Al-Quds Brigades, but it remains unclear whether Al-Quds Brigades are independent of the Embassy's affairs. It also shows that the Iranian intelligence services, the Iranian Revolutionary Guard and the Iranian diplomatic service are involved in the affairs of the Al-Quds Brigade.

  圣城旅曾被指控参与了1992年以色列驻阿根廷大使馆和1994年布宜诺斯艾利斯犹太社区中心的两起爆炸事件,不过伊朗政府坚决否认了这一指控。

The Al-Quds Brigade was accused of being involved in two bombings of the Israeli Embassy in Argentina in 1992 and the Jewish community center in Buenos Aires in 1994, although the Iranian government strongly denied the charge.

  2007年1月,伊朗最高国家安全委员会决定让圣城旅负责伊朗在伊拉克的军事行动。同时,将总人数增加至15000。美国部分情报人员相信,圣城旅为逊尼派(可能也有什叶派)武装提供或运送武器。这不仅给伊拉克的作战形式带来了极大的改变,而且也提高了伊拉克武装的武器质量,尤其是引进了可远程操控的炸药。

In January 2007, Iran's Supreme National Security Council decided to put the Al-Quds Brigade in charge of Iran's military operations in Iraq. At the same time, increase the total to 15000. Some U.S. intelligence officials believe the Al-Quds Brigade provides or delivers weapons to Sunni (and possibly Shia) militants. This has not only significantly changed Iraq's form of operations, but has also improved the quality of its armed forces, particularly the introduction of remotely controlled explosives.

  美国国防情报局在2007年曾指控圣城旅与黎巴嫩真主党和伊朗情报部门合作,领导了跨国的恐怖主义行动。此外,其他的情报来源也显示,圣城旅的首要任务是支持什叶派在伊拉克的军事行动。随着圣城旅装备的不断更新和作战方式的改变,其引发的新威胁也在日益凸显,以至于圣城旅逐渐成为了战争中不可忽视的力量。

In 2007, the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency accused the Al-Quds Brigades of collaborating with Lebanese Hezbollah and Iranian intelligence to lead transnational terrorist operations. In addition, other sources of intelligence indicate that the Al-Quds Brigade's priority is to support Shiite military operations in Iraq. With the renewal of Al-Quds's equipment and the change of its combat methods, the new threats are becoming more and more prominent, so that the Al-Quds's brigade has gradually become a force that cannot be ignored in the war.

  早在叙利亚内战伊始,伊朗就开始支持阿萨德政权。2012年圣城旅曾被迫撤出叙利亚战场,但从2015年开始,又逐渐有圣城旅士兵参与作战以及导致伤亡的报道。据美国《赫芬顿邮报》报道,2013年七月中旬,圣城旅领导人苏莱曼尼曾前往莫斯科并与普京会面。而从2007年起,联合国就已经冻结了这位将军的财产,并禁止其出境。美国在2007年将圣城旅列为恐怖主义的支持者,并对伊朗革命卫队整体实施了制裁。2011年,欧盟也实施了同样的政策。

As early as the beginning of the Syrian civil war, Iran began to support the Assad regime. The al-Quds Brigade was forced to withdraw from the Syrian battlefield in 2012, but since 2015, there have been reports of the involvement of Al-Quds Brigade soldiers and casualties. In mid-July 2013, Al-Quds Brigade leader Suleimani went to Moscow and met with Putin, the Huffington Post reported. Since 2007, the United Nations has frozen the general's property and banned him from leaving the country. The United States listed Al-Quds Brigade as a terrorist supporter in 2007 and imposed sanctions on the Iranian Revolutionary Guard as a whole. In 2011, the EU implemented the same policy.

  伊朗和俄罗斯在叙利亚内战中都有支持阿萨德政府的立场,并且在打击“伊斯兰国”的战线上也是盟友。支持阿萨德政府是伊朗在叙利亚内战中的基本立场,但伊朗政府也保留了其对叙利亚领土和资产的掌控能力,以保证即便阿萨德下台,其仍可以满足自己的地区利益。

Both Iran and Russia have positions in support of Assad's government in the Syrian civil war and are allies on the front against ISIS. Supporting mr assad's government is an essential part of iran's position in syria's civil war, but it has retained its grip on syrian territory and assets to ensure that it can meet its regional interests even if mr assad steps down.

  圣城旅作为伊朗革命卫队对阿萨德政府情报与军事支援的一部分进入叙利亚。同时,其所支持的黎巴嫩真主党和伊拉克什叶派武装也以支持阿萨德政府的立场参战。所以,圣城旅不仅亲自在军事、情报、金钱和武器上对阿萨德政府提供了援助,而且还将更多的地区势力带入了叙利亚内战,使局势更加复杂。伊朗在地区内参与军事行动的强大能力和意愿也得到了充分的展示。英国《每日邮报》著名专栏作家克里斯托弗·布克(ChristopherBooker)就曾撰文表示,如果没有圣城旅作为支持阿萨德政府的主要武装,阿萨德政权早就不复存在了。

The Al-Quds Brigade entered Syria as part of Iranian Revolutionary Guard intelligence and military support for Assad's government. Meanwhile, the Lebanese Hezbollah and Iraqi Shi'ite forces it supports have joined the war in support of Assad's government. So the Al-Quds Brigade not only personally assisted Assad's government in military, intelligence, money, and weapons, but also brought more regional forces into Syria's civil war, making the situation more complicated. The strong ability and willingness of Iran to engage in military operations in the region have also been fully demonstrated. Christopher Booker, a leading columnist for the Daily Mail, has written about the fact that the Assad regime would have long ceased to exist without the Al-Quds Brigade as the main force behind his government.

  此外,圣城旅也为中东激进组织提供援助,并在一些事务中扮演着关键的幕后角色。圣城旅为黎巴嫩真主党提供训练、武器和金钱,并在2006年以色列与黎巴嫩真主党的停火协商中发挥了重要作用,同时圣城旅还支持在阿富汗的什叶派武装和塔利班的军事活动。

  不过,圣城旅的活动一般都较为隐秘。因此,其活动的规模,实际上的作用,以及与个别组织的具体联系都无法给出定论。譬如,圣城旅与巴勒斯坦伊斯兰圣战组织和哈马斯的关系就颇为暧昧。有证据显示,圣城旅为巴勒斯坦的敌对武装也提供了军事训练、武器和金钱方面的援助。不过就公开的信息来看,这类援助的规模并不清楚。不仅如此,外界对关于圣城旅的具体信息,如人数、运作形式等也只停留在推测的水平上。

However, Al-Quds's activities are generally more secretive. Therefore, the scale of its activities, the actual role, and the specific linkages with individual organizations are not conclusive. The Al-Quds Brigade's relationship with the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas, for example, is ambiguous. There is evidence that Al-Quds has also provided military training, arms and monetary assistance to the Palestinian militants. However, the scale of such assistance is unclear in terms of public information. Not only that, the specific information about the holy city brigade, such as the number of people, the form of operation, and so on, only stay at the level of speculation.


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